Resiliencia, Estigma y Adaptación al Impedimento de los Estudiantes Universitarios con Diversidad Funcional

Palabras clave

persona con impedimento

Cómo citar

Mercado, R., Nazario-Jiménez, M., Martínez-Díaz, K., Fonseca-Cruz, H., & Rosa-Marcano, C. (2019). Resiliencia, Estigma y Adaptación al Impedimento de los Estudiantes Universitarios con Diversidad Funcional. Revista Griot, 12(1), 31-46. Recuperado a partir de


Este estudio examinó el nivel de resiliencia, estigma y adaptación al impedimento de 187 estudiantes universitarios con diversidad funcional en relación a su tipo de impedimento y edad de diagnóstico.  En general, los análisis de T-test y ANOVA  indicaron que existe una relación significativa entre el nivel de adaptación al impedimento y los trastornos psiquiátricos. Los estudiantes con impedimentos psiquiátricos reportaron menor grado de adaptación al impedimento, que aquellos con otros impedimentos. Además, los estudiantes con trastornos psiquiátricos informaron no percibir estigma por sus pares. También, se encontró que los estudiantes diagnosticados en edades más tempranas tenían mayor capacidad de resiliencia y adaptación al impedimento.  Finalmente, se discuten las implicaciones de esta investigación para la academia,  para crear ambientes inclusivos dentro y fuera del salón de clases.



Adams, K. S., & Proctor, B. E. (2010). Adaptation to college for students with and without disabilities: Group differences and predictors. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 22, 166-184.

Becker, S., & Palladino, J. (2016). Assessing faculty perspectives about teaching and working with students with disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 29(1), 65-82.

Beilke, J. R., & Yssel, N. (1999). The chilly climate for students with disabilities in higher education. College Student Journal, 33, 364-372.

Beirnat, M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Stigma and stereotypes. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 1-30). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Brooks, J. H., & Dubois, D. L. (1995). Individual and environmental predictors of adjustment during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 347-360.

Burgstahler, S., & Doe, T. (2006). Improving postsecondary outcomes for students with disabilities: Designing professional development for faculty. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 18(2), 135-147.

Catalano, D., Chan, F., Wilson, L., Chiu, C.Y., & Muller, V.R. (2011). The buffering effect of resilience on depression among individuals with spinal cord injury: a structural equation model. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56(3), 200-211. doi: 10.1037/a0024571

DaDeppo, L.M.W. (2009). Integration Factors Related to the Academic Success and Intent to Persist of College Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(3), 122–131.

DeFur, S.H., Getzel, E.E., & Trossi, KI. (1996). Making the postsecondary education match: A role for transition planning, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 6, 231-241.

Dovidio, J. F., Major, B., & Crocker, J. (2000). Stigma: Introduction and overview. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 1-30). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Dovidio, J. F., Pagotto, L., & Hebl, M. R. (2011). Implicit attitudes and discrimination against people with physical disabilities. In R. L. Wiener & S. L. Willborn (Eds.), Disability and aging discrimination: Perspectives in law and psychology (pp. 157-183). New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media.

Dowrick, P. W., Anderson, J., Heyer, K., & Acosta, J. (2005). Postsecondary education across the USA: Experiences of adults with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, 41-47.

Falvo, D. (2006). Medical and psychological aspects of chronic illness and disability (3th Edition). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publisher.

Ferrin, J.M., Chang, F., Chronister, J., & Chiu, C. (2011).

Psychometric validation of the Multidimensional Acceptance of Loss Scale. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(2), 166-174.

Gilson, S. F. (1996). Students with disabilities: An increasing voice and presence on college campuses. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 6, 263-267.

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.

Groomes, D., & Linkowski, D.C. (2007). Examining the structure of the revised acceptance disability scale. Journal of Rehabilitation, 73(3), 3-9.

Harbour, W.S., & Madaus, J.W. (2011). Disability services and campus dynamics. New Directions for Higher Education, 154, 1-98.

Harkness, J., & Schoua-Glusberg, A. (1998). Questionnaires in translation. In: Harkness, J. (Ed.), Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen -ZUMA- (Ed.): Cross-cultural survey equivalence. Mannheim (ZUMA-Nachrichten Spezial 3). - ISBN 3-924220-13-1, pp.87-126. URN: ssoar-49733-1

Hartmann-Hall, H. M., & Haaga, D. A. F. (2002). College students’ willingness to seek help for the learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 247-261.

Hebl, M. R., Tickle, J., & Heatherton, T. F. (2000). Awkward moments in interactions between non-stigmatized and stigmatized individuals. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 1-30). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Heinemann, A. W., & Shontz, F. C. (1982). Acceptance of disability, self-esteem, sex role identity, and reading aptitude in deaf adolescents. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 25, 197-203.

Heppner, P. P., Wampold, B. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. (2008). Research design in counseling (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Herrick, S.J. (2011). Postsecondary students with disabilities: Predictors of adaptation to college. (Doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania.

Hitchings, W. E., Retish, P., & Horvath, M. (2005). Academic preparation of adolescents with disabilities for postsecondary education. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 28(1), 26-35.

Ho Kim, W., & Lee, J. (2015). The effect of accommodation on academic performance of college students with disabilities. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 60(1), 40-50.

Janiga, S. J., & Costenbader, V. (2002). The transition from high school to postsecondary education for students with learning disabilities: A survey of college service coordinators. Journal of Learning Disabilities 35(5), 463-470.

Kim, W.H., & Lee, J. (2016). The effect of accommodation on academic performance of college students with disabilities. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 60(1), 40-50.

Lin, C., Wang, C., Fujikawa, M., Brooks, J., Eastvold-Walton, L., Maxwell, K., & Chang, F. (2013). Psychometric validation of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for persons with spinal cord injury in Taiwan. Rehabilitation, Research, Policy, and Education, 27(3), 223-231.

Livneh, H., & Antonak, R.F. (2005). Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability: A primer for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development 83(1), 12-20.

Maddi, S. R., & Khoshaba, D. M. (2005). Resilience at work: How to succeed no matter what life throws at you. New York: AMACOM.

Margalit, M. (2003). Resilience model among individuals with learning disabilities: proximal and distal influences. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(2), 82–86.

Miranda, M. (2018). Informe anual de logros de la Ley Núm. 238: Universidad de Puerto Rico. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Administración Central.

Newman, L., Wagner, M., Cameto, R., & Knokey, A.M. (2009). The post-high school outcomes of youth with disabilities up to 4 years after high school. A report of findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2009-3017). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Olney, M. F., & Kim, A. (2001). Beyond adjustment: integration of cognitive disability into identity. Disability and Society, 16, 563-583.

O’Shea, A., & Meyer, R.H. (2016). A qualitative investigation of the motivation of college students with nonvisible disabilities to utilize disability services. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 29(1), 5-23.

Kelly, A. E., Sedlacek, W. E., & Scales, W. R. (1994). How college students with and without disabilities perceive themselves and each other. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73, 178-182.

Krotseng, M. V. (1992). Predicting persistence from the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire:Early warning or siren song? Research in Higher Education, 33(1), 99-111.

Padden, L. & Ellis, C. (2015). Disability Awareness and University Staff Training in Ireland (Practice Brief). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 28(4), 433-445.

Pallero, R. (2008). Ajuste psicosocial a la discapacidad visual en personas mayores [formato PDF]. Integración: Revista sobre Ceguera y Deficiencia Visual, 55, 34-42.

Palmer, C., & Roessler, R. T. (2000). Requesting classroom accommodations: Self-advocacy and conflict resolution training for students with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 66(3), 38-43.

Reichman, N.E, Corman, H. & Noonan, K. (2008). Impact of child disability on the family. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12(6) 679-683.

Reinschmiedt, H.J., Sprong, M.E., Dallas, B., Buono, F.D., & Upton, T.D. (2013). Post-secondary students with disabilities receiving accommodations: A survey of satisfaction & subjective well-being. Journal of Rehabilitation, 79(3), 3-10.

Ryan, A. G., Nolan, B. F., Keim, J., & Madsen, W. (1999). Psychosocial adjustment factors of postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 13(3), 3-18.

Sánchez, J., Umucu, E., Schoen, B., Barnes, E., Chan, F., & Bezyak, J.L. (2016). Measurement structure of an abbreviated and modified version of the Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for individuals with severe mental illness. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 47(3), 41-49.

Sanders, K. S., & Dubois, D. L. (1996). Individual and socio-environmental predictors of adjustment to college among students with disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 12(2), 28-39.

Se cuadruplican estudiantes de educación especial en Puerto Rico en 10 años (15 de diciembre de 2015). Primera Hora. Recuperado de especialenpuertoricoen10anos-1126676/

Shaw-Zirt, B., Popali-Lehane, L., Chaplin, W., & Bergman, A (2005). Adjustment, social skills, and self-esteem in college students with symptoms of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8(3), 109-120.

Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 194-200.

Stodden, R. A., Jones, M. A., & Chang, K. (2002). Services, supports and accommodations for individuals with disabilities: An analysis across secondary education, postsecondary education and employment. University of Hawaii-Manoa, Center on Disability Studies. Retrieved October 22, 2003 from StoddenJones_formatted.htm

Tansey, T.N., Kaya, C., Moser, E., Eagle, D., Dutta, A., & Chang, F. (2016). Psychometric validation of the Brief Resilience Scale in a sample of vocational rehabilitation consumers. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 59(2), 108-111.

Trammell, J. (2003). The impact of academic accommodations on final grades in a postsecondary setting. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 34(1), 76-90.

Trammell, J. (2005, February 23). Transitioning students with disabilities to college. Paper presented at the St. Joseph’s Villa School, Richmond, VA.

Trammell, J. (2009). Postsecondary students and disability stigma: Development of the Postsecondary Student Survey of Disability-Related Stigma (PSSDS). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 22(2) 106-116.

Upton, T. D., Harper, D. C., & Wadsworth, J. (2005). Postsecondary attitudes toward persons with disabilities: A comparison of college students with and without disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 36(3), 24-31.

Venezia, A. (2003). Connecting the systems: What can postsecondary education do to work with K-12 to help students better prepare for college? Peer Review, 5(2), 27-30.

Wagnild, G.M. & Young, H.M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165-178.

Wessel, R.D., Jones, J.A., Markel, L., & Westfall, C. (2009). Retention and graduation of students with disabilities: Facilitating student success. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 21(3), 116-125.

Wilson, K.E., & Getzel, E.E. (2001). Creating a supportive campus: The VCU Professional Development Academy. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 23(2), 12-18.

Wolanin, T.R. and Steele, P.E. (2004). Higher education opportunities for students with disabilities: A primer for policymakers. Washington, D.C.: The Institute for Higher Education Policy.

Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.