La energía, la crisis climática y el urbanismo en Puerto Rico
Portada del vol.50, 2019
PDF

Palabras clave

urbanism
energy
peak oil
climate crisis
sustainability
transportation Urbanismo
energía
crisis climática
pico del petróleo
sostenibilidad
transporte

Cómo citar

Moreno Viqueira, G. ., & Furumo, P. (2019). La energía, la crisis climática y el urbanismo en Puerto Rico. Revista De Administración Pública, 50(1), 99-135. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.upr.edu/index.php/ap/article/view/19257

Resumen

Este ensayo crítico enlaza tres asuntos que apenas han sido asociados en la discusión pública sobre energía en Puerto Rico: La energía, la crisis climática y el urbanismo. El urbanismo actual, suburbano y desparramado, es una de las mayores causas de consumo de energía en Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico, y uno de los mayores contribuyentes a la crisis climática, ya que este tipo de urbanismo conlleva una alta dependencia del auto privado, una falta de métodos alternativos de transporte eficaces, y ciudades y pueblos poco caminables. El suburbio es un gran consumidor de energía. Se encontró que la producción per cápita de CO por el automóvil privado en Puerto Rico es 5.4 a 6.1 mayor que la de países europeos como Francia y España por su urbanismo desparramado y suburbano. En un momento histórico de emergencia climática estos datos nos llevan a proponer que el urbanismo que practica actualmente Puerto Rico es ambientalmente irresponsable. Además, se propone que la llegada del pico del petróleo va a causar una grave crisis sobre todo en países con un urbanismo suburbano y desparramado como Puerto Rico si no actuamos de manera urgente. Todo esto apunta a que, en Puerto Rico, el urbanismo debe ser incorporado como asunto central en las discusiones sobre energía y la crisis climática, que incluya el transporte público y la ciudad caminable como prioridades. Se propone además que los cambios necesarios para lograr un urbanismo que sea realmente social, ambiental y energéticamente responsable no se pueden lograr bajo los conceptos actuales de urbanismo sostenible, desarrollo inteligente o nuevo urbanismo, sino que requieren movernos hacia una situación de democracia urbanística a través de un urbanismo sostenible crítico que reconozca que el urbanismo es un asunto político e ideológico asociado a consideraciones de poder y de intereses económicos, y no meramente un asunto técnico de diseño, planificación o ciencia. Lo que se requiere es un cambio de paradigma urbanístico que cuestione y rete el statu quo, y no meros ajustes modestos en diseño, planificación, legislación o política pública.

PDF

Citas

(2015). Future report: Hydrogen as energy carrier. Planete Energie. https://www.planeteenergies.com/en/medias/close/hydrogen-production.

(2015). Transport uses 25 percent of world energy. Maritine Executive. https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/transport-uses-25-percent-of-world-energy.

Atlanta Regional Comission. (2021). https://atlantaregional.org/.

Arocha, R. J. (2019). Sedentarismo, la enfermedad del siglo XXI. Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis. 31(5)

-240. DOI: 10.1016/j.arteri.2019.04.004.

Autorita del Transporte Metropolitá. (2013). https://www.atm.cat/ web/index.php.

Berube, A., Singer, A., Wilson, J. y Frey, W. (2006). Finding exburbia: America’s changing landscape at the metropolitan fringe. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.

Burchell, R., Downs, A., McCann, B., y Mukherji, S. (2005). Sprawl costs: Economic impact of unchecked development. Washington DC: Island Press.

Buekers, Jurgen, Mirja Van Holderbeke, Johan Bierkens, y Luc Int Panis. 2014. Health and Environmental Benefits Related to Electric Vehicle Introduction in EU Countries.Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2014.09.002.

Calthorpe, P. (1993). The next American metropolis: Ecology, community and the American dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Calthorpe, P. (2013). Urbanism in the age of climate change. Washington: Island Press.

Carolan, M. S. (2006). Scientific Knowledge and Environmental Policy: Why Science Needs Values. Environmental Sciences 3(4):229–37. doi: 10.1080/15693430601058224.

Carolan, M. S. y Bell, M. M. (2003). In Truth We Trust: Discourse, Phenomenology, and the Social Relations of Knowledge in an Environmental Dispute. Environmental Values 12(2):225–45. doi: 10.3197/096327103129341306.

Conca, J. (2014, 20 de abril). Corn ethanol is of no use. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2014/04/20/ its-final-corn-ethanol-is-of-no-use/#4f08690667d3.

Cortright, J. (2008). Driven to the brink: How gas price hike popped the housing bubble and devalued the suburbs. Chicago: CEOs for Cities.

Coulson, N. y Engle, R. (1987). Transportation costs and the rent gradient. Journal of Urban Economics, 21: 287-297.

Cox, R. S. y Sinclair, T. J. (1996). Approaches to World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Creutzig, F. (2014). How fuel prices determine public transport. Urban Climate, 10(1), 63-76.

Duany, A., Plater-Zyberk, E. y Speck, J. (2000). Suburban nation: The rise of sprawl and the decline of the American dream. New York: North Point Press.

Energy.gov. (2020). Reducing pollution with electric vehicles. https://www.energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/reducing- pollution-electric-vehicles

European Commission. (2020, 13 de octubre). Sustainable transport: Internalising transport external costs. https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/sustainable/ internalisation-transport-external-costs_enEurostat.

European Commission. (2020, 6 de octubre). Statistics Explained. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics- explained/pdfscache/25886.pdf.

Federal Highway Administration. (2014). Productivity and the highway network: A look at the economic benefits to industry from investment in the highway network. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/060320b/Felt, U.,

Fouche, R., Miller, C.A. & Smith-Doerr, L (2017) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ferreira, F. S. (2017). Critical Sustainability Studies: A Holistic and Visionary Conception of Socio-Ecological Conscientization. Journal of Sustainable Education 13(March), 1–21.

Frumkin, H., Frank, L. y Jackson, R. (2004). Urban sprawl and public health: Designing, planning, and building for healthy communities. Washington DC: Island Press.

Guardian. (2019). America spends over $20bn per year on fossil fuel subsidies. Abolish them. https://www.theguardian. com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2018/ jul/30/america-spends-over-20bn-per-year-on-fossil- fuel-subsidies-abolish-them.

Harrabin, R. (2019, 5 de julio). Electric cars will not solve transport problems, report warns. BBC News. https:// www.bbc.com/news/uk-48875361#:~:text=Car%20 use%20will%20still%20need,and%20wasted%20 space%20for%20parking.

Hart, Stanley I. y Spivak, A. L. (1993). The Elephant in the Bedroom. Pasadena, CA: New Paradigm Books.

Helmers, Eckard y Marx, P. (2012). Electric Cars: Technical Characteristics and Environmental Impacts. Environmental Sciences Europe.

Instituto de Estadísticas de Puerto Rico. (s. f.). http:// www.estadisticas.gobierno.pr/iepr/Estadisticas/ InventariodeEstadisticas/tabid/186/ctl/view_detail/ mid/775/report_id/a46b9f9e-efb0-4164-a8ed- 34ed366dfb54/Default.aspx?f=1.3,1.4,2.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. The Failure of Town Planning. New York.

Jaffe, E. (2015, 5 de enero). The real reason US gas is so cheap is Americans don’t pay the true cost of driving. Citylab. https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2015/01/the- real-reason-us-gas-is-so-cheap-is-americans-dont-pay- the-true-cost-of-driving/384200/.

Kearney, M.S, Hershbein, B. y Nantz, B. (2015) Racing ahead or falling behing? 6 economic facts about transportation infrastructure in the United States. Brookings Institute. https://www.brookings.edu/research/racing-ahead-or- falling-behind-6-economic-facts-about-transportation- infrastructure-in-the-united-states/.

Kleinman, D. L. y Moore, K. (2014). Routledge Handbook of Science, Technology and Society. New York, NY: Routledge.

Kunstler, J. H. (2007). Transcript: James Howard Kunstler on TED.com. TED blog. https://blog.ted.com/james_ howard_ku_1/.

Kunstler, J. H. (1996). Home from nowhere: Remaking our everday world for the 21st century. New York: Touchstone.

Lane, B. (2013). Public Transportation as a Solution to Oil Dependence. In J. Renne, & Fields, B., Transport beyond oil. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Martenson, C. (2014, 18 de noviembre). Shale Oil: Expensive, over-hyped and short lived. Resilience.org. https://www. resilience.org/stories/2014-11-18/shale-oil-expensive- over-hyped-and-short-lived/.

Manson, JoAnn, E., Patrick, J. Skerrett, P. H. y Vanltallie, T. B. (2004). The Escalating Pandemics of Obesity and Sedentary Lifestyle. Archives of Internal Medicine 164(3):249. Doi: 10.1001/archinte.164.3.249.

Molloy, R. y Shan, H. (2013). The effect of gasoline prices on household location. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 95 (4):1212-1221.

Moreno Viqueira, G. (2004). La universidad como ejemplo de urbanismo habitable y sostenible: Resultados de la investigación y propuestas. La Universidad centenaria ¿Y ahora que? Actas del Segundo Congreso sobre Investigación en la Univesidad (pp. 175-201). San Juan: Asociación de Profesores Universitarios, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Moreno Viqueira, G. (2009). La integración eco-urbana y el espacio público como asunto ambiental. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 20, 78-103.

Moreno Viqueira, G. (2013). La importancia del transporte colectivo en su relación con el ambiente y el urbanismo. Recuperado de Cruce: Crítica Sociocultural Contemporánea V. 3: http://www.revistacruce.com/ politica-sociedad/la-importancia-del-transporte- colectivo-en-su-relacion-con-el-ambiente-y-el- urbanismo.html.

Notter, D. A., Gauch, M. Widmer, R., Wäger, P., Stamp, A., Zah, R. y Althaus, H. J. (2010). Contribution of Li- Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles. Environmental Science and Technology. Doi: 10.1021/es903729a.

Ogden, J. M., Williams, R. H. y Larson, E. D. (2004). Societal Lifecycle Costs of Cars with Alternative Fuels/Engines. Energy Policy. Doi: 10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00246-X.

Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2010). Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization 60.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. (2018). OPEC share of world’s crude oil reserves. https://www.opec. org/opec_web/en/data_graphs/330.htm.

Preston, B. (2020, 23 de enero). As States add money to fix roads, US is urged to ante up. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/23/business/us- road-infrastructure.html.

Reid, R., Carver, T. E., Tyler, G. R., Picard-Turcot, M. A., Andersen, K. M., Christou, N. V. y Andersen, R. E. (2017). Effects of Neighborhood Walkability on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Long-Term Post-Bariatric Surgery. Obesity Surgery. Doi: 10.1007/s11695-016-2494-4.

Reid, R., Picard-Turcot, M. A., Carver, T. E., Reid, T., Andersen, K. M., Christou, N. V. y Andersen, R. E. (2016). Effects of Neighborhood Walkability on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Long-Term Post-Bariatric Surgery Patients. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. Doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000486458.55994.57.

Renne, J. F. y Fields, B. (2013). Transport beyond oil: Policy choices for a multimodal future. [Kindle Edition] Island Press.

Rose, J. y Cachelin,A. (2018). Critical Sustainability: Incorporating Critical Theories into Contested Sustainabilities. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 8(4):518–25. Doi: 10.1007/s13412-018-0502-9.

Schmitt, A. (2014, 3 de septiembre). Wowza: Scale maps of Barcelona and Atlanta show the waste of sprawl. https:// usa.streetsblog.org/2014/09/03/wowza-scale-maps- of-barcelona-and-atlanta-show-the-waste-of-sprawl/ comment-page-1/.

Sexton, S., Wu, J. y Zilberman, D. (2011). How gas prices triggered the housing crisis: Theory and empirical evidence. Berkeley: University of California Center for Energy and Economics.

Statista. (2020). Plug-in electric vehicles as a share of new electric vehicle sales in selected markets in the first half of 2020. https://www.statista.com/statistics/267162/ world-plug-in-hybrid-vehicle-sales-by-region/.

Statista. (2020). Total market share of newly registered electric vehicles in the European Union. https://www.statista. com/statistics/625010/electric-vehicle-market-share- in-eu-annual/#:~:text=In%20the%20European%20 Union%2C%20the,0.1%20percent%20to%202.1%20 percent.

Statista (2021) Countries with the highest population density worldwide in 2019. Recuperado de https://www.statista. com/statistics/264683/top-fifty-countries-with-the- highest-population-density/

Tanguay, G. y Gingras, I. (2011). Gas prices variations and urban sprawl: An empirical analysis of the 12 largest Canadian metropolitan areas. CIRANO, 1-26.

The Global Economy. (2017). Gasoline Consumption per Country. https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/ gasoline_consumption/.

The Global Economy. (2020). Gasoline consumption- Country ranking. https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/ gasoline_consumption/.

Union of Concerned Scientists. (2014, 2 de marzo). All about oil. https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/all-about-oil.

US Energy Information Administration. (s.f.). How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuels? http://www.patagoniaalliance.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/08/How-much-carbon-dioxide-is- produced-by-burning-gasoline-and-diesel-fuel-FAQ- U.S.-Energy-Information-Administration-EIA.pdf.

US Energy Information Administration. (2018). Energy use for transportation. https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/ use-of-energy/transportation.php.

US Environmental Protection Agency. (2018). Sources of greenhouse gas emissions. https://www.epa.gov/ ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

Walljasper, J. (2015). Walking is a basic human right. America Walks. https://americawalks.org/walking-is-a-basic- human-right/.

Weisser, B. (2015). Lack of Physical Activity. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 112(33–34), 563. Doi: 10.3238/ arztebl.2015.0563b.

Wheeler, S. (2014). Sustainable Urban Development Reader. New York: Routledge.

World Bank. (2011). Road sector gasoline fuel consumption per capita. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD. SGAS.PC.

Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2021 Array

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.