Notes on the natural enemies of Etiella zinckenella in Puerto Rico


Lima-bean pod borer--Host plants
Lima-bean pod borer--Diseases and pests--Puerto Rico
Crotalaria pallida
Host plants

How to Cite

Segarra-Carmona, A. E., & Barbosa, P. (1988). Notes on the natural enemies of Etiella zinckenella in Puerto Rico. The Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 72(1), 153-159.


Results from an Etiella zinckenella (Treif.) natural enemy survey in Puerto Rico are presented. Egg parasitism by Trichogramma sp. was found la be very low (3%). Six hymenopterous larval parasitoids were collected from larvae feeding on Crotalaria pallida (Ait.). Of these the braconid Heterospilus etiellae Rower was the most abundant species, accounting for 74.2% of parasitized larvae. Iconella etiellae (Vier.) was the only larval parasitoid recovered from soybeans. Overall percentage parasitism averaged 33.6%, ranging from 5 to 91 % at different locations. Notes are presented on the life history of the most common species. One experimental manipulation of accessibility of eggs to Solenopsis geminata (Fab.) failed to demonstrate any effect on E. zinckenella attack of C. pallida. Additional predators recorded include Polistes wasps and anole lizards. Strategies for utilization of these natural enemies are briefly discussed.


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