AbstractThe arrival of the invasive Asian lime swallowtail, Papilio demoleus L., in Puerto Rico has prompted the need for a better understanding of its life cycle, and its control options under local citrus-producing conditions. Our results show that P. demoleus has a life cycle of approximately 30 days. From oviposition, eggs hatch in three days. Larval instar durations are 3, 2, 3, 3, and 5 d for larval stages 1 to 5, respectively. Pupal stage lasts approximately 12 days. Head capsule measurements for instars 1 to 4 are similar in males and females. Last instar females tend to be larger than males. Our data suggest that 12 or more generations are possible under local conditions. Acute stomach toxicity tests on third instar larvae indicate that spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis subs, kurstaki cause 100% mortality in most concentrations tested. Other insecticides were not effective. Possible advantages of using these products are discussed in light of initiatives to use reduced risk pesticides and biologically-based pesticides.
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