Characterization of Clays and Clay-organic Complexes

How to Cite

Pérez Escolar, R. (1966). Characterization of Clays and Clay-organic Complexes. The Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 50(4), 303–315.


Information is presented with reference to the infrared spectroscopy of blackstrap molasses, rum distillery slops, the active fraction of the slops, clays of four poorly drained soils, and of the complexes formed between organic materials and the clays of Fe, Guanica, Whippany, and Evesboro soils. The X-ray spectroscopy of two of the clays of montmorillonitic nature and of the complexes formed with the organic materials is also shown. Characteristic peaks of the organic materials include those caused by hydroxyl, methyl, amino, methoxy, carbonyl, and ketonic groups. The spectra of the clays showed peaks which are attributed to hydroxyl, bonded and unbonded, adsorbed water, silica tetrahedra, and aluminum octahedra. Hydrogen-bonding occurred between the exposed hydroxyl groups of the clay crystals and the molasses, slops, and its active residue. There was no shift in the 2 angle of diffraction of the expanding-laitice clays, indicating that there was no adsorption in the interlamellar spaces. The adsorption was possible at the edges of the crystal. This finding was strengthened by the fact that rather than undergoing a decrease in cation-exchange capacity there was a slight increase in the expending lattice clays.


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