FAMACHA© as a tool to detect anemia in meat goats in Puerto Rico
PDF (Español (España))


Gastrointestinal nematodes

How to Cite

Acero-Camelo, A., Valencia, E., Rodríguez, A. A., & Randel, P. F. (2009). FAMACHA© as a tool to detect anemia in meat goats in Puerto Rico. The Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 93(1-2), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.46429/jaupr.v93i1-2.2754


In the FAMACHA© system the ocular mucous membranes of sheep and goats are classified by comparison with a laminated color chart bearing pictures of sheep conjunctivae classified into five categories, ranging from the normal red, through pink to practically white in severe anemia. This system was developed in South Africa to detect anemia in sheep caused by gastrointestinal parasites (Haemonchus contortus), and it has been validated for use in goats in South Africa and the southeastern United States, but in Puerto Rico there are few confirmatory data available. The objective of this study was to validate the FAMACHA system for detecting anemia in goats under Puerto Rican conditions.The criteria used to diagnose anemia and apply antihelmintic treatment were eye score values of 4 and 5 and packed cell volume (PCV) value <19. Sensitivity, specificity, and both negative and positive predictive values were determined. The relations between FAMACHA© score and PCV and between fecal egg count (FEC) and PCV were determined by using Pearson correlation coefficients. Sensitivity was found to be 100%; specificity, 73.5%. There was 22.5% of false positive results and 15% of true positives, but there was no false negative. This finding indicates that all anemic animals received treatment. Predictive value of a negative result was 100% and of a positive was 62.5%. Significant correlations were found between PCV and FAMACHA© score (p = 0.0028) and between PCV and FEC (p = 0.0128), the respective correlation coefficients being -0.46 and -0.39. It is concluded that FAMACHA is a useful tool for determining anemia in goats under local conditions.

PDF (Español (España))


Download data is not yet available.