Path coefficient analysis was carried out in tropical pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) for yield per plant as a function of number of fruit per plant and weight per fruit, using phenotypic and genetic correlations from two diallels: one using five varieties (variety diallel) and a second using five S1 lines derived from the varieties (line diallel). A randomized complete block design with five replications was used to evaluate 15 genotypes from each diallel, not including reciprocals. Direct effects were 300 to 500% greater than indirect effects in the line diallel. In contrast, direct effects were only 17 to 68% greater than indirect effects in the variety diallel. Effects (direct and indirect) were greater (17 to 500%) when genetic correlations rather than phenotype correlations (42 to 440%) were used in the path analysis. Fruit weight showed a greater effect on yield than did number of fruit, with values between 3.2 to 4.9 times the residual effects. Fruit weight and number of fruit can be used as selection criteria to increase yield in tropical pumpkin.